ERSI
Home
About Us The Scales In Practice Training News Authors Order FAQ Resources

Selected References for the the ECERS/ECERS-R













The following references show publications that have used the ECERS/ECERS-R. They were updated in January, 2003. 

Corrections and additions are welcome and may be sent to Alex Elkins.

Andersson, M. (1999). The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS) as a tool in evaluating and improving quality in preschools. Studies in Educational Sciences, 19.

Bailey, D. B., Harms, T., & Clifford, R. M. (1982). Comparison of preschool environments for handicapped and non-handicapped children. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 2(1), 9-20.

Bailey, D. B., Harms, T., & Clifford, R. M. (1983). Matching changes in preschool environments to desired changes in child behavior. Journal of Division of Early Childhood, 7, 61-88.

Bailey, D. B., Harms, T., & Clifford, R. M. (1983). Social and educational aspects of mealtimes for handicapped preschoolers: Observation and analysis. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 3(2), 19-32.

Barclay, K., Benelli, C. (1995). Program evaluation through the eyes of a child. Childhood Education, 72(2), 91-97.

Benham, N., Miller, T., & Kontos, S. (1988). Pinpointing staff training needs in child care centers. Young Children, 43(4), 9-16.

Bergen, D. (1995). Quality of the Literacy Environment in Day Care and Children’s Development. Childhood Education, 71(3), 191-192.

Bryant, D. M., Burchinal, M. R., Lau, L. B., & Sparling, J. J. (1994). Family and classroom correlates of Head Start children's developmental outcomes. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 9(3/4), 289-309.

Bryant, D. M., Clifford, R. M., & Peisner, E. S. (1991). Best practices for beginners: Developmental appropriateness in kindergarten. American Educational Research Journal, 28(4), 783-803.

Bryant, D. M., Maxwell, K., Burchinal, M. R., & Lowman, B. (1997). The effects of smart start on the quality of preschool child care. Chapel Hill, NC: Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Bryant, D. M., Maxwell, K. L., & Burchinal, M. (1999). Effects of a community initiative on the quality of preschool child care. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 14(4), 449-464.

Bryant, D. M., Peisner, E. S., & Clifford, R. M. (1993). Evaluation of public preschool programs in North Carolina. Final Report. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Policy Studies Program, Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Bryant, D. M., Clifford, R., & Peisner-Feinberg, E. S. (1989). Best practices for beginners:  Quality programs for kindergartners.  Final Report. Chapel Hill, NC: Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Buell, M.J., Cassidy, D.J. (2001). The Complex and Dynamic Nature of Quality in Early Care and Educational Programs: A Case for Chaos. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 15(2), 209-220.

Burchinal, M. R., Cryer, D., Clifford, R. M., & Howes, C. (1999). Caregiver training and classroom quality in child care centers. Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (unpublished manuscript).

Burchinal, M. R., Howes, C., & Peisner-Feinberg, E. S. (In preparation). Development of academic skills from preschool through second grade: Family and classroom predictors of developmental trajectories.

Burchinal, M. R., Peisner-Feinberg, E. S., Bryant, D., & Clifford, R. M. (in press). Children's social and cognitive development and child care quality: Testing for differential associations related to poverty, gender, or ethnicity. Applied Developmental Science.

Burchinal, M. R., Roberts, J. E., Riggins, R., Zeisel, S. A., Neebe, E., & Bryant, D. (2000). Relating quality of center-based child care to early cognitive and language development longitudinally. Child Development, 71(2), 339-357.

Burriss, K.G. (2001). Research into practice. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 16(1), 125-129.

Buysse, V., Wesley, P. W., Bryant, D., & Gardner, D. (1999). Quality of early childhood programs in inclusive and noninclusive settings. Exceptional Children, 65(3), 301-314.

Calder, P. (1996). Methodological reflections on using the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale as a measure to make cross-national evaluations of quality. Early Childhood Development and Care, 126, 27-37.

Cassidy, D. J., Buell, M., Pugh-Hoese, S., & Russell, S. (1995). The effect of education on child care teachers’ beliefs and classroom quality: year one evaluation of the TEACH early childhood associate degree scholarship program. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 10(2), 171-183.

Clifford, R. M. (1993). Recent major studies of early childhood education in the U.S. in Encontro Sobre Educacao Pre-Escolar (pp. 55-61). Lisbon, Portugal: Fundacao Calouste Gulbenkian Serviicade Educacao.

Clifford, R. M., Bryant, D. M., & Peisner, E. S. (1989). Best practices for beginners: Quality programs for kindergartens. Chapel Hill, NC: Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Clifford, R. M., Bryant, D. M., & Peisner, E. S. (1989). Developmental appropriateness of kindergartens in North Carolina. Raleigh, NC: NC-AEYC News, North Carolina Association for the Education of Young Children.

Clifford, R.M., Harms, T., Cryer, D. (1990). Measures of reliability of three rating scales. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for the Education of Young Children, Washington, DC.

Clifford, R. M., Rossbach, H. G., Burchinal, M. R., Lera, M. J., & Harms, T. (In preparation). Factor structure of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS): An international comparison.

Clifford, R. M., Wenger, M., Lubeck, S., Gallagher, J. J., & Harms, T. (1987). Family needs for child care and early education. Chapel Hill, NC: Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Cost, Quality, & Child Outcomes Study Team. (1995). Cost, quality and child outcomes in child care centers: Executive summary. Denver, CO: Economics Department, University of Colorado at Denver.

Cost, Quality, & Child Outcomes Study Team. (1995). Cost, quality and child outcomes in child care centers: Key findings and recommendations. Young Children, 50(4), 40-44.

Cost, Quality, & Child Outcomes Study Team. (1995). Cost, quality and child outcomes in child care centers: Public Report. Denver, CO: Economics Department, University of Colorado at Denver.

Cryer, D. (1999). Defining and assessing early childhood program quality. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 563.

Cryer, D., & Burchinal, M. R. (1997). Parents as child care consumers. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 12(1), 35-58

Cryer, D., Clifford, R. M., & Harms, T. (1988). Day care center compliance and evaluation project: Final report. Chapel Hill, NC: Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Cryer, D., & Phillipsen, L. (1997). Quality details:  A close-up look at child care program strengths and weaknesses. Young Children, 55(5), 51-61.

Cryer, D., Tietze, W., Burchinal M. R., Leal, T., & Palacios, J. (1999). Predicting process quality from structural quality in preschool programs: A cross-country comparison. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 14(3), 339-361.

Diaz, C.J., Arthur, L., Beecher, B., McNaught, M. (2000). Multiple literacies in early childhood: What do families and communities think about their children’s early literacy learning? Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 23(3), 230.

Division for Early Childhood Task Force on Recommended Practices. (1993). DEC recommended practices: Indicators of quality in programs for infants and young children with special needs and their families. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 370 253.

Elardo, R., & Telzrow, K. (1985). Review of the early childhood environment rating scale. 9th Mental Measurements Yearbook. Lincoln: Buros Institute of Mental Measurement.

Epstein, A. (1999). Pathways to Quality in Head Start, Public School, and Private Nonprofit Early Childhood Programs (Statistical Data Included). Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 13(2), 101.

Farquhar, S. (1989). Assessing New Zealand child day care quality using the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale. Early Child Development and Care, 47, 93-105.

Fiene, R., & Melnick, S. A. (1990). Licensure and program quality in early childhood and child care programs. Annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association.

Fiene, R., & Melnick, S. A. (1989). Licensure and program quality in child care and early childhood programs. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State Department of Public Welfare.

File, N. K., & Kontos, S. (1993). The relationship of program quality to children’s play in integrated early intervention settings. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 13, 1-18.

Georgia Office of School Readiness home page. Updated November, 2001, http://www.osr.state.ga.us/.

Goelman, H. (1988). A study of the relationships between structure and process variables in home and day care settings on children's language development. in A. R. Pence(ed), Ecological research with children and families:  From concepts to methodology. Teachers College Press.

Goelman, H., & Pence, A. R. (1988). Children in three types of day care: Daily experiences, quality of care and developmental outcomes. Early Child Development and Care, 33, 67-76.

Goelman, H., & Pence, A. R. (1987). The effects of child care, family and individual characteristics on children's language development. in D. Phillips (Ed), Quality in child care: What does research tell us?  NAEYC Monograph Series (Vol. 1). Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.

Goelman, H., & Pence, A. R. (1987). The relationship between family structure and child development in three types of day care. in S. Kontos, & D. Peters (Eds), Advances in Applied Developmental Psychology (Vol. 2 pp. 129-146). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Goelman, H., & Pence, A. R. (1986). Toward the ecology of day care in Canada:  A research agenda for the 1980s. Canadian Journal of Education, 10(4), 323-344.

Hagekull, B., & Bohlin, G. (1995). Day care quality, family and child characteristics and socioemotional development. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 10(4), 505-526.

Harms, T. (2001). An Effective Plan for Reaching the Stars. All Together Now (Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 3-4)

Harms, T. (1992). Designing settings to support high quality care. in B. Spodek, & O. Saracho (Eds), Yearbook of Early Childhood Education, Issues in Child Care (pp. 169-186). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Harms, T., & Clifford, R. M. (1983). Assessing preschool environments with the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale. in B. Spodek (Ed), Studies in educational evaluation, special issue:  Evaluation in early childhood education (Vol. 8, Chap. 3, pp. 261-269).

Harms, T., & Clifford, R. M. (1980). The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale. New York, NY.: Teachers College Press.

Harms, T., & Clifford, R. M. (1993). Studying educational settings. in B. Spodek (Ed), Handbook of research on the education of young children (pp. 477-492). New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Company.

Harms, T., Clifford, R. M., & Cryer, D. (1998). Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Harms, T., Clifford, R. M., & Cryer, D. (1988). Introduction to the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale: [Trainer’s audio-visual kit, viewer’s guide and training workbook]. New York, NY: Teachers College Press, Columbia University.

Harms, T., & Cryer, D. (1998). Video observation and print training package for the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised Edition. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Harms, T., Fleming, J., & Cryer, D. (1992). Video observation and print training package for the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Harms, T. (2000). Using the environmental rating scales as a catalyst for change. in C. S. L. Tan-Niam, & Q. M. Ling (Eds), Investing in our future: The early years (pp. 25-35). Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Hautamäki, A., Kalliala, M., Nabuco, M. (2000). Emergent trends in early childhood education: towards an ecological and psychohistorical analysis of quality. Finland: University of Helsinki.

Helburn, S. (1995). Cost, quality and child outcomes in child care centers, Technical report. Denver, CO: Economics Department, University of Colorado at Denver.

Helburn, S., & Howes, C. (1996). Child care cost and quality. The Future of Children:  Financing Child Care, 6(2), 62-82.

Helburn, S. W., Culkin, M. L., Morris, J. R., & Clifford, R. M. (1995). The Cost, Quality, and Child Outcomes Study Theoretical Structure. in S. W. Helburn (Ed), Cost, Quality and Child Outcomes in Child Care Centers, Technical Report (pp. 11-29). Denver, CO: Economics Department, University of Colorado at Denver.

Hestenes, L. L., Kontos, S., & Bryan, Y. (1993). Children’s emotional expression in child care centers varying in quality. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 8, 295-307.

Holloway, S.D., Kagan, S.L., Fuller, B., Tsou, L., Carroll, J. (2001). Assessing child-care quality with a telephone interview. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 16(2), 165-189.

Howes, C. (1997). Children’s experiences in center-based child care as a function of teacher background and adult:child ratio. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 43(3), 404-425.

Howes, C. (in press). Social-emotional classroom climate in child care, child teacher relationships and children’s second grade peer relations. Social Development.

Howes, C., & Byler, P. (In preparation). Pedagogy from child care to second grade: Influences of developmentally appropriate practices.

Howes, C., Phillipsen, L., & Peisner-Feinberg, E. S. (2000). The consistency of perceived teacher-child relationships between preschool and kindergarten. Journal of School Psychology, 38(2), 113-132.

Howes, C., & Smith, E. W. (1995). Relations among child care quality, teacher behavior, children’s play activities, emotional security, and cognitive activity in child care. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 10(4), 381-404.

Iutcovich, J., Fiene, R., Johnson, J., Koppel, R., Langan, F. (1997). Investing in Our Children’s Future: The Path to Quality Child Care through the Pennsylvania Child Care/Early Childhood Development Training System. Pennsylvania: Keystone University.

Kagan, S. L., Clifford, R. M., Helburn, S. W., & The Research Team. (1995). Major findings and recommendations. in S. W. Helburn (Ed), Cost, Quality and Child Outcomes in Child Care Centers, Technical Report. Denver, CO: Department of Economics, University of Colorado at Denver.

Kärrby, G. (1999). Conceptions of quality in early childhood education: An analysis of rationales for the rating quality with the ECERS. Paper presented at the EECERA 9th European conference, Helsinki, Finland.

Kärrby, G., & Giota, J. (1994). Dimensions of quality in Swedish day care centers: An analysis of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale. Sweden: Göteborg University, Department of Education and Educational Research.

Kärrby, G., & Giota, J. (1995). Parental conceptions of quality in daycare centers in relation to quality measured by the ECERS. Early Child Development and Care, 110(95), 1-18.

Kärrby, G., & Giota, J. (1994). Dimensions of quality in Swedish day care centers:  An analysis of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale. Early Child Development and Care, 104, 1-22.

Kontos, S., & Fiene, R. (1987). Child care quality, compliance with regulations, and children's development: The Pennsylvania study. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.

Kontos, S., & Stevens, R. (1985). High quality child care:  Does your center measure up? Young Children, 40(2), 5-9.

Kotch, J. B. (1990). Reduction in transmission of disease in child care settings:  Final report. Chapel Hill, NC: Department of Maternal and Child Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Kotch, J. B., Weigle, K. A., Weber, D. J., Clifford, R. M., Harms, T., Loda, F. A., Gallagher, Jr. P. N., Edwards, R. W., LaBorde, D., McMurray, M. P., Rolandelli, P. S., & Faircloth, A. H. (1994). Evaluation of hygienic intervention in child day-care centers. Pediatrics, 94(6), 991-994.

Kwan, C., Sylva, K., & Reeves, B. (1988). Day care quality and child development in Singapore. Early Child Development and Care, 144, 69-77.

Layzer, J., Goodson, B., & Moss, M. (1993). Observational study of early childhood programs, Final report, Volume I: Life in preschool. Cambridge, MA: Abt Associates.

Lera, M. J. (1996). Education under five in Spain: A study of preschool classes in Seville. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 11(2), 139-150.

Lera, M. J., & others. (1996). Quality of educational settings for four-year-old children in England. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 4(2), 21-32.

Lewis, C.A. (1999). A study of quality of preschools in Pasadena: Investigating the role of economic, physical, and convenience factors (California). Dissertation Abstract International, 60(5A), 1445.

Love, M.A. (2001). Changing a child care system through director leadership and environment. Dissertation Abstract International, 62(2A), 473.

Lyon, M. E., & Canning, P. M. (1997). Auspice, location, provincial legislation and funding of day care in Atlantic Canada: Relationships with centre quality and implications for policy. Canadian Journal of Research in Early Childhood Education, 6(2), 139-55.

Makin, L., Hayden, J., Diaz, C.J. (2000). High-Quality Literacy Programs in Early Childhood Classrooms. Childhood Education, 76(6), 368.

Makin, L., McNaught, M. (2001). Multiple perspectives on early literacy: Staff and parents speak out. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 24(2), 133.

Maxwell, K., & Bryant, D. (1996). Overall summary of Smart Start Evaluation 1994-95 Child Care Data. Chapel Hill, NC: Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Maxwell, K., Bryant, D., & Bernier, K. (1997). Child care in the pioneer partnerships, 1994 and 1996.  Chapel Hill, NC: Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

McCartney, K. (1984). Effects of quality of day care environment on children's language development. Developmental Psychology, 20(2).

McCartney, K., Scarr, S., Phillips, D., & Grajek, S. (1985). Day care as intervention:  Comparisons of quality day care programs. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 6(3), 247-260.

McCartney, K., Scarr, S., Phillips, D., Grajek, S., & Schwarz, J. C. (1982). Environmental differences among day care centers and their effects on children's development. in E. F. Ziegler, & E. W. Gordon (Eds), Day Care: Scientific and Social Policy Issues. Boston, MA: Auburn House.

McCormick, L., Noonan, M.J., Ogata, V., Heck, R. (2001). Co-teacher relationship and program quality: Implications for preparing teachers for inclusive preschool settings. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 36(2), 119-132.

McMillen, B.J. (1999). Predictors of engagement in center-based child care: Mediating and moderating effects. Dissertation Abstracts International, 60(7A), 2362.

Melhuish, E., Sylva, K., Sammons, P., Siraj-Blatchford, I., Taggart, B., Dobson, A., Jeavons, M., Lewis, K., Morahan, M., & Sadler, S. (1999). The effective provision of pre-school education [EPPE] project:  Parent, family and child characteristics in relation to type of pre-school and socio-economic differences.  Technical paper 4. London: Institute of Education, University of London.

Mill, D., & Romano-White, D. (1999). Correlates of affectionate and angry behavior in child care educators of preschool-aged children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 14(2), 155-178.

Munton, A. G., & and others. (1995). Deconstructing quality:  A conceptual framework for the new paradigm in day care provision for the under eights. Early Child Development and Care, 114, 11-23.

Munton, A. G., Rowland, L., Mooney, A., & Lera, M. J. (1997). Using the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS) to evaluate quality of nursery provision in England: Some data concerning reliability. Educational Research, 39, 99-104.

NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (In press). Characteristics and quality of child care for toddlers and preschoolers. Journal of Applied Developmental Science.

NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (1999). Child outcomes when child care center classes meet recommended standards for quality . American Journal of Public Health, 89, 1072-1077.

NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (1998). The NICHD Study of Early Child Care. Psychiatric Times, 15(3), 71-72.

NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (1993). The NICHD Study of Early Child Care: A comprehensive longitudinal study of young children's lives. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 353 0870.

Odom, S.L. (2000). Preschool Inclusion: What We Know and Where We Go From Here. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 20(1), 20.

Olenick, M. (1986). The relationship between quality and cost in child care programs. Child and Family Policy Research, 17.

Palacios, J., Lera, M.J., Moreno, C. (1994). Evaluación de los contextos familiares y extrafamiliares en los años preescholaries: Escalas HOME y ECERS (Assessment of family and extrafamily contexts during the preschool years: HOME and ECERS Scales). Infancia y aprendizaje, 66, 71.

Palsha, S., & Wesley, P. (1998). Improving quality in early childhood environments through on-site consultation. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 18(4), 243-253.

Palsha, S., Wesley, P., Fenson, C., & Dennis, B. (1996). Improving the quality of early childhood environments: The model of on-site consultation a manual for consultants. Chapel Hill, NC: Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Peisner, E. S., Bryant, D. M., & Clifford, R. M. (1990). Final report of the Chapel Hill-Carrboro city schools kindergarten self-study. Chapel Hill, NC: Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Peisner-Feinberg, E. S., & Burchinal, M. R. (1997). Relations between preschool children’s child care experiences and concurrent development: The cost, quality, and outcomes study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 43, 451-477.

Peisner-Feinberg, E. S., Burchinal, M. R., Clifford, R. M., Culkin, M. L., Howes, C., Kagan, S. L., & Yazejian, N. (Under review). Longitudinal effects of preschool child care quality on children’s development through second grade.

Peisner-Feinberg, E. S., Burchinal, M. R., Clifford, R. M., Culkin, M. L., Howes, C., Kagan, S. L., & Yazejian, N., Byler, P., Rustico, J., & Zelazo, J. (1999). The children of the cost, quality and outcomes study go to school: Executive Summary. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center.

Peisner-Feinburg, E.S., Burchinal, M.R., Clifford, R.M., Culkin, M.L., Howes, C., Kagan, S.L., Yazejian, N. (2001). The relation of preschool child-care quality to children’s cognitive and social developmental trajectories through second grade. Child Development, 72(5), 1534-1554.

Phillips, D., McCartney, K., & Scarr, S. (1987). Child care quality and children's social development. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 23, 537-543.

Phillips, D., Scarr, S., & McCartney, K. (1987). Dimensions and effects of child care quality: The Bermuda study. in D. Phillips (Ed), Quality in child care: What does research tell us?  NAEYC Monograph Series, Volume 1. Washington DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.

Phillipsen, L. C., Burchinal, M. R., Howes, C., & Cryer, D. (1997). The prediction of process quality from structural features of child care. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 12(3), 281-303.

Ridley, S. M., McWilliam, R. A., & Oates, C. S. (in press). Group engagement as an indicator of child care program quality. Early Education and Development.

Roberts, J.E., Burchinal, M.R., Jackson, S.C., Hooper, S.R., Roush, J., Mundy, M., Neebe, E.C., Zeisel, S.A. (2000). Otitis Media in Early Childhood in Relation to Preschool Language and School Readiness Skills Among Black Children. Pediatrics, 106(4), 725.

Roberts, J. E., Burchinal, M. R., Zeisel, S. A., Neebe, E. C., Hooper, S. R., Roush, J., Bryant, D., Mundy, M., & Henderson, F. W. (1998). Otitis media, the caregiving environment, and language and cognitive outcomes at two years. Pediatrics, 102(2), 346-352.

Rossbach, H.G., Clifford, R.M., Harms, T. (1991). Dimension of learning environments: Cross-national validation of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale. Paper presented at the AERA Annual Conference, Chicago.

Sammons, P., Sylva, K., Melhuish, E., Siraj-Blatchford, I., Taggart, B., Smees, R., Dobson, A., Jeavons, M., Lewis, K., Morahan, M., & Sadler, S. (1999). The effective provision of pre-school education [EPPE] project:  Characteristics of the EPPE project sample at entry to study. Technical paper 2. London: Institute of Education, University of London.

Scarr, S. (1984). Mother Care/Other Care. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Scarr, S., Eisenberg, M., & Deater-Deckard, K. (1994). Measurement of quality in child care centers. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 9(2), 131-152.

Sheridan, S. (1997). Evaluations of quality with the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale: A comparison between external evaluations and preschool teachers self-evaluations of quality with the ECERS. Gothenburg, Sweden: Gothenburg University, Department of Education.

Sheridan, S., Schuster, K. (2001). Evaluation of pedagogical quality in early childhood education: A cross-national perspective. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 16(1), 109-125).

Shim, S., Herwig, J.E., Shelley, M. (2001). Preschoolers’ Play Behaviors With Peers in Classroom and Playground Settings (Statistical Data Included). Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 15(2), 149-154.

Siraj-Blatchford, I., Sylva, K., Melhuish, E., Sammons, P., Taggart, B., & Jennings, R. (1999). The effective provision of pre-school education [EPPE] project:  Contextualising EPPE:  Interviews with local authority co-ordinators and centre managers.  Technical paper 3. London: Institute of Education, University of London.

Smith, J.D. (1999). Teachers’ use of naturalistic intervention practices to facilitate communication and language development in young children with disabilities. Dissertation Abstracts International, 61(1A), 136.

Spodek, B., & Saracho, O. N. (1992). Issues in child care. Yearbook in Early Childhood Education, 3.

Stephen, C., & Wilkinson, J. E. (1995). Assessing the quality of provision in community nurseries. Early Child Development and Care, 108,  83-98.

Sticksel, S.A. (1999). Preschool quality and classroom variables: Are teacher-to-child ratio, group size, and ethnic diversity predictive of quality? Dissertation Abstracts International, 60(4B), 1889.

Stipek, D., Daniels, D., Galluzzo, D., & Milburn, S. (1992). Characterizing early childhood education programs for poor and middle-class children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 7(1), 1-19.

Sull, T.M. (2001). Program Evaluation for Child Care Professionals. Child Care Information Exchange(7), 75-79.

Sylva, K., Siraj Blatchford, I., Taggart, B., Colman, P. (1998). The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale: 4 curricular subscales. London: Institute of Education, University of London.

Sylva, K., Sammons, P., Melhuish, E., Siraj-Blatchford, I., & Taggart, B. (1999). The effective provision of pre-school education [EPPE] project:  An introduction to the EPPE project.  Technical paper 1. London: Institute of Education, University of London.

Sylva, K., Siraj-Blatchford, I., Melhuish, E., Sammons, P., Taggart, B., Evans, E., Dobson, A., Jeavons, M., Lewis, K., Morahan, M., & Sadler, S. (1999). The effective provision of pre-school education [EPPE] project:  Characteristics of the Centres in the EPPE Sample:  Observational Profiles.  Technical paper 6. London, England: University of London, Institute of Education .

Taylor, W.R., Galinsky, E., Helburne, S., Culkin, M. (1994). Cost and quality in child care (Proceedings of the International Conference on Child Day Care Health: Science, Prevention and Practice). Pediatrics, 94(6), 1099-1101.

Tietze, W., Bairrao, J., Leal, T.B., Rossbach, H.G. (1998). Assessing quality characteristics of center-based early childhood environments in Germany and Portugal: A cross-national study. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 13(2), 283-298.

Tietze, W., Giota, J. Cross-national assessments of process quality by the ECERS: A study on methodological issue. (unpublished manuscript).

Tietze, W., & Cryer, D. (in press). Current trends in European early child care and education. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 563.

Tietze, W., Cryer, D., Bairrao, J., Palacios, J., & Wetzel, G. (1996). Comparisons of observed process quality in early child care and education programs in five countries. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 11(4), 447-75.

Van-Ijzendoorn, M. H., Tavecchio, L. W. C., Stams, G. J., Werhoeven, M. J. E., & Reiling, E. J. (1998). Quality of center day care and attunement between parents and care givers: Center day care in cross-national perspective. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 159(4), 437-454.

Wesley, P. (1994). Providing on-site consultation to promote quality in integrated child care programs. Journal of Early Intervention, 18(4), 391-402.

Whitebook, M., Howes, C., & Phillips, D. (1989). National Child Care Staffing Study: Phoenix Report.

Whitebook, M., Howes, C., & Phillips, D. (1989). Who cares? Child care teachers and the quality of care in America: Final report. National Child Care Staffing Study. Oakland, CA: Child Care Employee Project.

Whitebook, M., Sakai, L., & Howes, C. (1997). NAEYC accreditation as a strategy for improving child care quality: An assessment by the National Center for Early Childhood Work Force. Washington, DC: National Center for Early Childhood Work Force.

Whitebook, M., Phillips, D., & Howes, C. (1993). National Child Care Staffing Study Revisited: Four years in the life of center based child care. Child Care Employee Project.

 

- Introduction
- Development
- Process of Revision
- Overview of the Subscales and     Items
- Reliability and Validity
- Selected References
- Additional Notes
- Supplementary Materials
- Translations
ERS® and Environment Rating Scale® are registered trademarks of Teachers College, Columbia University.